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Yes, All Above Questions Will be Answered One by One Below, This is Pretty Basic Question in Newbie Hackers whenever they hear about Cracking Password. I am going to Cover some of the basics below so that People who are unaware of the fact can get glimpse of Rainbow Tables and Understands them.

Simplified rainbow table with 3 reduction functions

                 What is Rainbow Tables ?

WikiPedia Wrote:

A rainbow table is a precomputed table for reversing cryptographic hash functions, usually for cracking password hashes. Tables are usually used in recovering the plaintext password, up to a certain length consisting of a limited set of characters. It is a practical example of a space-time tradeoff, using more computer processing time at the cost of less storage when calculating a hash on every attempt, or less processing time and more storage when compared to a simple lookup table with one entry per hash. Use of a key derivation function that employ a salt makes this attack infeasible.
Rainbow tables are an application of an earlier, simpler algorithm by Martin Hellman.

In simple terms, passwords stored in computers are changed from their plain text form to an encrypted value. This value or hash is the result of an algorithmic calculation designed for the operating system to use, but not to be plainly visible or intelligible to users. Let’s look at an example password and some associated hashes.
plaintext    : Fadu Hack
md4          : 3136853eb744ea85ae4f09a617625a70
md5          : 4baf5897963fc12d1cd8fe1a02eb48fb
md5_md5      : 87ffde714866510526546ef9a1db19bb
mysql3       : 3573c0604742c698
mysql4_mysql5: *af502ff2fbcd74e9f6b4d973f3968c044cd26f11
ntlm         : de7b526765bf839416913f81f3d50541
ripemd160    : f88ac3e4c82d60d755e7fc5410d1a980bffe02a5
gost         : 5ae2c723eba2b6dd1a5146b5c4e57dba740a4dc7c2e4b57ba7ced12476b86f84
sha1         : 2d7cd852faf790678785453124f3b4f5d5d25860
sha1_sha1    : ab74e27ff66c236b0762694f6a47b399738660bf
sha224       : b452133a03f0212f9d506411a365757d1a8d89194b142d457d87435f
sha256       : bda73679ff0137edc8e4ec93be4c9f59344a920e10958cf172d96643f9822f0a
sha384       : 36af87a4a0b850d779834eb251a198486609ea5b6133ae9812bd62c758c06d94c86c58e1c107c9d6​0281a5c9fee0bd9b
sha512       : faea6bd2bdea1bd4c5f1d0852f6c17ece1e41735bc05ea31485c90e9ae9d846bbbec197370

Please Note Above is Just a Sample and does not contain complete list.

               How to Use Rainbow Tables ?

You need 2 Things to do this :-

1. Small Application that can check against your Computed Hash [You can make your own too if you are programmer]
2. List of Hashes [This you can download from internet or torrent, you may find some pretty Good table list. ]
One Good hash List can vary from 5GB - [50-100]GB

But you don't need for every hash. For an Example for Basic Hashes you can google online tools. Before you go and Do Search for Online tools, I would recommend you to understand about different hash format. Simple way to Know about them is with their size length. For an Instance :-

1. md4, md5 is 32 characters long.
2. sha1 is 40 characters long.
3. mysql3 used to be or if someone still uses them than it is 16 characters long.
4. mysql4/mysql5 are 41 characters long.
5. ntlm is 32 characters long too.
6. sha224 is 56 characters long.
7. sha256 is 64 characters long.
8. sha512 is 126 characters long.
9. crypt is 13 characters long.
and list continues....

         Where to Download Rainbow Table List ?


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